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Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (in press). Computational modeling of cognition and behaviour. New book in production: Website

Lewandowsky, S., & Farrell, S. (2010). Computational Modeling in Cognition: Principles and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Corrections, addenda, code and supplementary materials are available .

Recent publications

Wilson, M. D., Farrell, Visser, T. & Loft, S. (2018). Remembering to execute deferred tasks in simulated air traffic control: The impact of interruptions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 24, 360–379. [git repo]

Oberauer, K., Lewandowsky, S., Awh, E., Brown, G. D. A., Conway, A., Cowan, N., Donkin, C., Farrell, S., Hitch, G. J., Hurlstone, M. J., Ma, W. J., Morey, C. C., Nee, D. E., Schweppe, J., Vergauwe, E., & Ward, G.  (2018).  Benchmarks for models of short-term and working memory. Psychological Bulletin, 144, 885–958.

Udale, R., Farrell, S., & Kent, C.  (in press).  No evidence for binding of items to task-irrelevant backgrounds in visual working memory. Memory & Cognition.

Udale, R., Farrell, S., & Kent, C.  (in press).  Task demands determine comparison strategy in whole probe change detection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.

Ballard, T., Farrell, S., & Neal, A.  (in press).  Quantifying the Psychological Value of Goal Achievement. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

Mason, A., Farrell, S., Howard-Jones, P. A., & Ludwig, C.  (in press).  The role of reward and reward uncertainty in episodic memory. Journal of Memory and Language.

Mason, A., Ludwig, C., & Farrell, S.  (2017).  Adaptive scaling of reward in episodic memory: a replication study. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 2306–2318.

Pre 2017

Ballard, T., Yeo, G., Neal, A., & Farrell, S.  (2016).  Departures from optimality when pursuing multiple approach or avoidance goals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(7), 1056–1066.

Farrell, S., Oberauer, K., Greaves, M., Pasiecznik, K., Lewandowsky, S., & Jarrold, C.  (2016).  A test of interference versus decay in working memory: Varying distraction within lists in a complex span task. Journal of Memory and Language, 90, 66–87.

Ez-zizi A, Farrell S, Leslie D  (2015)  Bayesian reinforcement learning in Markovian and non-Markovian tasks. In: 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence. 579-–586.

Oberauer, K., Farrell, S., Jarrold, C., & Lewandowsky, S.  (2016).  What limits working memory capacity?. Psychological Bulletin, 142, 758–799.

Farrell S, Lewandowsky S. (2015). An introduction to cognitive modelling. In: Forstmann BU, Wagenmakers E, ed.,An Introduction to Model-Based Cognitive Neuroscience. New York, NY: Springer. 3–24.

Spurgeon, J., Ward, G., Matthews, W. J., & Farrell, S.  (2014).  Can the effects of temporal grouping explain the similarities and differences between free recall and serial recall?. Memory & Cognition, 43, 469–488.

Farrell, S. (2014). Correcting the correction of conditional recency slopes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1–6.

Farrell, S. and Oberauer, K. (2014). Working memory for cross-domain sequences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 67, 33-44. [Unpublished manuscript reporting an additional experiment using words rather than nonwords as stimuli].

Farrell, S. and Hurlstone, M. J. and Lewandowksy, S. (2013). Sequential dependencies in recall of sequences: Filling in the blanks. Memory & Cognition, 41, 938–952.

Farrell, S. (2013). Serial Order Memory, Computational Perspectives. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Mind. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Farrell, S., & Lelievre, A. (2012). The dynamics of access to groups in working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 1659-1674.

Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2012). Response suppression contributes to recency in serial recall. Memory & Cognition, 40, 1070--1080.

Oberauer, K., Lewandowsky, S., Farrell, S., Jarrold, C., & Greaves, M. (2012). Modeling working memory: An interference model of complex span. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 779-819.

Oberauer, K., Farrell, S., Jarrold, C., Pasiecznik, K., & Greaves, M. (2012). Interference between maintenance and processing in working memory: The effect of item-distractor similarity in complex span. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Leaning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 665-685.

Farrell, S. (2012). Temporal clustering and sequencing in short-term memory and episodic memory. Psychological Review, 119, 223--271. [Errata applying to particulars of model description][Simulation code].

Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K. H., Farrell, S., & Brown, G. D. A. (2012). Models of cognition and constraints from neuroscience: A case study involving consolidation. Australian Journal of Psychology, 64, 37-45.

Ludwig, C. J. H., Farrell, S., Ellis, L. A., Hardwicke, T., & Gilchrist, I. D. (2012). Context-gated statistical learning and its role in visual-saccadic decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 41,, 150-169.

Wagenmakers, E.-J., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Farrell, S. (2012). Abstract concepts require concrete models: Why cognitive scientists have not yet embraced nonlinearly-coupled, dynamical, self-organized critical, synergistic, scale-free, exquisitely context-sensitive, interaction-dominant, multifractal, interdependent brain-body-niche systems. Topics in Cognitive Science, 4,, 87-93.

Farrell, S. (2011). Social influence benefits the wisdom of individuals in the crowd. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Letter to the editor) . [Comment on Lorenz, J., Rauhut, H., Schweitzer, F., & Helbing, D. (2011). How social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 9020-9025.]

Farrell, S., Wise, V., & Lelievre, A. (2011). Relations between timing, position and grouping in short-term memory. Memory & Cognition, 39, 573-587.

Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2010). Computational models as aids to better reasoning in psychology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 329-335.

Farrell, S., Ludwig, C. L., Ellis, L. A., & Gilchrist, I D. (2010). The influence of environmental statistics on inhibition of saccadic return. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 929-934. [Erratum applying to Equation 1] [Data]

Farrell, S. (2010). Dissociating conditional recency in immediate and delayed free recall: A challenge for unitary models of recency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36, 324-347.

Ludwig, C. J. H., Farrell, S., Ellis, L. A., & Gilchrist, I. D. (2009). The mechanism underlying inhibition of saccadic return. Cognitive Psychology, 59, 180-202.

Farrell, S. & Lelievre, A. (2009). Is scanning in probed order recall articulatory?. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1843-1858.

Farrell, S. & Lelievre, A. (2009). End anchoring in short-term order memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 60, 209-227.

Farrell, S. & Ludwig, C. J. H. (2008). Bayesian and maximum likelihood estimation of hierarchical response time models. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15,1209-1217

Farrell, S. & Lewandowsky, S. (2008). Empirical and theoretical limits on lag-recency in free recall.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 1236-1250.

    Initial submission of Farrell & Lewandowsky lag-recency limits paper, which presents some further explorations of the model and simulations relevant to Howard & Kahana's reply.

Lewandowsky, S. & Farrell, S. (2008). Short-term memory: New data and a model. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 49, 1-48.

Farrell, S. (2008). Multiple roles for time in short-term memory: Evidence from serial recall of order and timing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 128-145. [data]

Lewandowsky, S., & Farrell, S. (2008). Phonological similarity in serial recall: Constraints on theories of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 429-448.

Farrell, S., & McLaughlin, K. (2007). Short-term recognition memory for serial order and timing. Memory & Cognition, 35, 1724-1734. [data]

Unterhalter, G., Farrell, S., & Mohr, C. (2007). Selective memory biases for words reflecting gender-specific body image concerns. Eating Behaviors, 8, 382-389.

Farrell, S. (2006). Mixed-list phonological similarity effects in delayed serial recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 55,  587-600. [data]

Farrell, S., Wagenmakers, E.-J., & Ratcliff, R. (2006). 1/f noise in human cognition: Is it ubiquitous, and what does it mean? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 737-741.

    Code for above paper--feel free to use, cite Farrell, Wagenmakers, & Ratcliff paper if you do [matlab code][R code].
    Unpublished report of benchmarking simulations comparing Thornton & Gilden's (2005) spectral classifier to the ARFIMA method.

Farrell, S., Ratcliff, R., Cherian, A., & Segraves, M. (2006). Modeling unidimensional categorization in monkeys. Learning & Behavior, 34, 86-101.

Wagenmakers, E.-J., Farrell, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2005). Human cognition and a pile of sand: A discussion on serial correlations and self-organized criticality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 108-116.

Wagenmakers, E.-J., Farrell, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Estimation and interpretation of 1/f noise in human cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 579-615.

Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2004). Modelling transposition latencies: Constraints for theories of serial order memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 115-135. [data]

Wagenmakers, E-J., Farrell, S., & Ratcliff, R. (2004). Naive nonparametric bootstrap model weights are biased. Biometrics, 60, 281-283.

Wagenmakers, E-J., & Farrell, S. (2004). AIC model selection using Akaike weights. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 192-196

Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 838-849.

Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2002). An endogenous model of ordering in serial recall. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 59-79. [matlab code]

Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2000). A connectionist model of complacency and adaptive recovery under automation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 395-410.

Farrell, S., and Lewandowksy, S. (2000). The case against distributed representations: Lack of evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 476-477.

Lewandowsky, S., & Farrell, S. (2000). A redintegration account of the effects of speech rate, lexicality, and word frequency in immediate serial recall. Psychological Research, 63, 163-173.


Farrell, S. (2003). Review of "Memory from A to Z", by Yadin Dudai (OUP). Perception, 32, 1279-1280.

Farrell, S. (2001). Similarity-sensitive encoding, redintegration, and response suppression in serial recall. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Western Australia.

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Along with some of the references above, simulation code is provided. No warranty is provided as to the correctness of this code, which should be fully checked if being used for research purposes. Additionally, raw data are provided for some of the experiments. These are provided for use by other research groups who may be interested in analysing these data for their own purposes (e.g., meta-analysis, model fitting). It would be nice to let me know if use the data or simulation code as part of work you are intending to publish or submit for publication.